News Release

CDDEP's report 'The State of the World's Antibiotics' highlights the growing threat of AMR

CDDEP's report on 'The State of the World's Antibiotics in 2021' highlights the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance against a backdrop of increasing antibiotic consumption

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy

Washington, DC / New Delhi, India - Researchers at CDDEP have released, The State of the World's Antibiotics in 2021, which presents extensive data on global antimicrobial use and resistance as well as drivers and correlates of antimicrobial resistance, based on CDDEP's extensive research and data collection through ResistanceMap, a global repository that has been widely used by researchers, policymakers, and the media.

Since the first State of the World's Antibiotics report in 2015, antimicrobial resistance has leveled off in some high-income countries but continues to rise in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where access to antibiotics has risen with increases in gross domestic product per capita. Per capita antibiotic consumption in LMICs is lower than in high-income countries, despite a higher infectious disease burden; however, consumption rates are rapidly converging. These trends reflect both better access to antibiotics for those who need them and increases in inappropriate antibiotic use.

An important driver of resistance is antibiotic use in humans and in terrestrial and aquatic animals raised for human consumption. Global antibiotic consumption in humans increased by 65 percent between 2000 and 2015, whereas consumption in animals is expected to increase by 11.5 percent between 2017 and 2030. If nothing changes to alter these trajectories, antibiotic consumption is likely to increase worldwide by 200 percent between 2015 and 2030.

The approaches to addressing AMR are to reduce the need for antibiotics (through prevention of infections), to reduce the use of antibiotics (by better use of diagnostics and antibiotic stewardship), and to innovate to find new methods of disease prevention and treatment. All three strategies are needed so that a strong arsenal of effective antibiotics can be maintained.

This report introduces country-level dashboards that capture progress on indicators that track AMR and show what remains to be done to decrease the need for antibiotics and their inappropriate use.

"We are optimistic that future generations will also witness the miracle of antibiotics. To ensure that privilege, it is incumbent on us to treat the crown jewels of modern medicine with care and respect," said Dr. Laxminarayan, Director at CDDEP.

The State of the World's Antibiotics in 2021 is published in CDDEP's website and is available for download here:

It is being launched at a global webinar featuring Dame Sally Davies, and Professors Otto Cars, Abdoulaye Djimde, and Ramanan Laxminarayan.


About the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy Inc.

The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy Inc. (CDDEP) produces independent, multidisciplinary research to advance the health and wellbeing of human populations around the world. CDDEP projects are global in scope, spanning Africa, Asia, and North America, and include scientific studies and policy engagement. The CDDEP team is experienced in addressing country-specific and regional issues, as well as global challenges, such as antibiotic resistance and pandemic influenza. CDDEP research is notable for innovative approaches to design and analysis, which are shared widely through publications, presentations, and web-based programs. CDDEP has offices in Washington, D.C., and New Delhi and relies on a distinguished team of scientists, public health experts, and economists.

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