News Release

Remembering the good times, putting the bad times in perspective

Research explains why most people are happy with their lives

Peer-Reviewed Publication

American Psychological Association

WASHINGTON -- Surveys conducted in the United States and around the world consistently show that people are generally happy with their lives, even for those with physical and mental disabilities and people without much money. Researchers reviewing several studies on autobiographical memory and happiness have found that human memory is biased toward happiness and that mild depression can disrupt this bias for good over bad. The findings are published in the June issue of Review of General Psychology, a journal of the American Psychological Association (APA).

In their article, W. Richard Walker, Ph.D., of Winston-Salem State University and colleagues find two causes for people's recollection of the past to be positively biased. The first cause, according to their review of the research, seems to be due to the simple fact that pleasant events do in fact outnumber unpleasant events because people seek out positive experiences and avoid negative ones. Across 12 studies conducted by five different research teams, people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds and participants who ranged in age from late teens to early 50's consistently reported experiencing more positive events in their lives than negative events.

The other process at work involves our memory system treating pleasant emotions differently from unpleasant emotions. Seven studies reviewed by the researchers provide support for a fading affect for negative emotions. Pleasant emotions have been found to fade more slowly from our memory than unpleasant emotions. One mechanism for this uneven fading may involve a process known as minimization. In order to return to our normal level of happiness, we try to minimize the impact of life events. This minimization process – which occurs biologically, cognitively and socially -- is usually stronger for negative events than for positive events.

"This implies that there is a tendency to 'deaden' the emotional impact of negative events relative to the impact of positive events," according Dr. Walker. "Such deadening occurs directly because people are motivated to view their life events in a relatively positive light."

The research shows that this fading affect bias represents genuine emotional fading rather than a retrospective error in memory, and it should be viewed as evidence of healthy coping processes operating in memory, according to the authors. They add that this should not be confused with repression, a theory proposed by Sigmund Freud. This research suggests that people do remember negative events; they just remember them less negatively.

Of course, life is not pleasant for everyone. Of the 229 participants involved in eight reviewed studies where diary entries were tracked, 17 reported more unpleasant than pleasant events, indicating that the fading affect does not work for everyone. Among those with mild depression, unpleasant and pleasant emotions tend to fade evenly. In a new study to be published by the review authors, 330 participants recalled six emotionally intense memories from their lives and provided a series of ratings for each event. The participants were also assessed on depression levels. The researchers found increased levels of depression were associated with a greater disruption of the fading affect bias.

But for those not suffering from depression, the authors say the bias "suggests that autobiographical memory represents an important exception to the theoretical claim that bad is stronger than good and allows people to cope with tragedies, celebrate joyful moments, and look forward to tomorrow."


Article: "Life Is Pleasant -- and Memory Helps to Keep It That Way!" W. Richard Walker, Winston-Salem State University, John J. Skowronski, Northern Illinois University and Charles P. Thompson, Kansas State University; Review of General Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 2.

Full text of the article is available from the APA Public Affairs Office or at

Lead author W. Richard Walker, Ph.D., can be reached at 336-750-2624 (Monday-Thursday mornings) or by e-mail at

The American Psychological Association (APA), in Washington, DC, is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's largest association of psychologists. APA's membership includes more than 150,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 53 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting health, education and human welfare.

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