The newly discovered super-Earth LHS 1140b orbits in the habitable zone around a faint red dwarf star named LHS 1140, in the constellation of Cetus (The Sea Monster). Red dwarfs are much smaller and cooler than the Sun and, although LHS 1140b is ten times closer to its star than the Earth is to the Sun, it only receives about half as much sunlight from its star as the Earth and lies in the middle of the habitable zone. The orbit is seen almost edge-on from Earth and as the exoplanet passes in front of the star once per orbit it blocks a little of its light every 25 days.
"This is the most exciting exoplanet I've seen in the past decade," said lead author Jason Dittmann of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, USA). "We could hardly hope for a better target to perform one of the biggest quests in science -- searching for evidence of life beyond Earth."
"The present conditions of the red dwarf are particularly favourable -- LHS 1140 spins more slowly and emits less high-energy radiation than other similar low-mass stars," explains team member Nicola Astudillo-Defru from Geneva Observatory, Switzerland .
For life as we know it to exist, a planet must have liquid surface water and retain an atmosphere. When red dwarf stars are young, they are known to emit radiation that can be damaging for the atmospheres of the planets that orbit them. In this case, the planet's large size means that a magma ocean could have existed on its surface for millions of years. This seething ocean of lava could feed steam into the atmosphere long after the star has calmed to its current, steady glow, replenishing the planet with water.
The discovery was initially made with the MEarth facility, which detected the first telltale, characteristic dips in light as the exoplanet passed in front of the star. ESO's HARPS instrument, the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher, then made crucial follow-up observations which confirmed the presence of the super-Earth. HARPS also helped pin down the orbital period and allowed the exoplanet's mass and density to be deduced .
The astronomers estimate the age of the planet to be at least five billion years. They also deduced that it has a diameter 1.4 times larger than the Earth -- almost 18 000 kilometres. But with a mass around seven times greater than the Earth, and hence a much higher density, it implies that the exoplanet is probably made of rock with a dense iron core.
This super-Earth may be the best candidate yet for future observations to study and characterise its atmosphere, if one exists. Two of the European members of the team, Xavier Delfosse and Xavier Bonfils both at the CNRS and IPAG in Grenoble, France, conclude: "The LHS 1140 system might prove to be an even more important target for the future characterisation of planets in the habitable zone than Proxima b or TRAPPIST-1. This has been a remarkable year for exoplanet discoveries!" [4,5].
In particular, observations coming up soon with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope will be able to assess exactly how much high-energy radiation is showered upon LHS 1140b, so that its capacity to support life can be further constrained.
Further into the future -- when new telescopes like ESO's Extremely Large Telescope are operating -- it is likely that we will be able to make detailed observations of the atmospheres of exoplanets, and LHS 1140b is an exceptional candidate for such studies.
 The habitable zone is defined by the range of orbits around a star, for which a planet possesses the appropriate temperature needed for liquid water to exist on the planet's surface.
 Although the planet is located in the zone in which life as we know it could potentially exist, it probably did not enter this region until approximately forty million years after the formation of the red dwarf star. During this phase, the exoplanet would have been subjected to the active and volatile past of its host star. A young red dwarf can easily strip away the water from the atmosphere of a planet forming within its vicinity, leading to a runaway similar to that on Venus.
 This effort enabled other transit events to be detected by MEarth so that the astronomers could nail down the detection of the exoplanet once and for all.
 The planet around Proxima Centauri (eso1629 - http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1629/ ) is much closer to Earth, but it probably does not transit its star, making it very difficult to determine whether it holds an atmosphere.
 Unlike the TRAPPIST-1 system (eso1706 - http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1706/ ), no other exoplanets around LHS 1140 have been found. Multi-planet systems are thought to be common around red dwarfs, so it is possible that additional exoplanets have gone undetected so far because they are too small.
This research was presented in a paper entitled "A temperate rocky super-Earth transiting a nearby cool star", by J. A. Dittmann et al. to appear in the journal Nature on 20 April 2017.
The team is composed of Jason A. Dittmann (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), Jonathan M. Irwin (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), David Charbonneau (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), Xavier Bonfils (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble - Université Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, France), Nicola Astudillo-Defru (Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), Raphaëlle D. Haywood (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), Zachory K. Berta-Thompson (University of Colorado, USA), Elisabeth R. Newton (MIT, USA), Joseph E. Rodriguez (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), Jennifer G. Winters (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), Thiam-Guan Tan (Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Australia), José-Manuel Almenara (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble - Université Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, France; Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), François Bouchy (Aix Marseille Université, France), Xavier Delfosse (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble - Université Grenoble-Alpes / CNRS, France), Thierry Forveille (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble - Université Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, France), Christophe Lovis (Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), Felipe Murgas (Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble - Université Grenoble-Alpes / CNRS, France; IAC, Spain), Francesco Pepe (Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), Nuno C. Santos (Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço and Universidade do Porto, Portugal), Stephane Udry (Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland), Anaël Wünsche (CNRS/IPAG, France), Gilbert A. Esquerdo (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA), David W. Latham (Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA) and Courtney D. Dressing (Caltech, USA).
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* Research paper in Nature - https://www.eso.org/public/archives/releases/sciencepapers/eso1712/eso1712a.pdf
* Photos of La Silla - https://www.eso.org/public/images/archive/category/lasilla/
* More information on HARPS - https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/lasilla/36/harps/
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