News Release

Diversity on city councils increases noninfrastructure spending -- for better or worse

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Rice University

Richard Boylan, Rice University

image: Richard Boylan. view more 

Credit: Rice University

HOUSTON - (Feb. 5, 2020) - When city councils are elected by district rather than at large, spending on noninfrastructure projects increases, and the impact is not necessarily good, according to new research from a Rice University economist.

"The Impact of Court-Ordered District Elections on City Finances" will appear in a recent edition of the Journal of Law and Economics and is authored by Richard Boylan, a professor of economics at Rice.

"Beginning in 1975, the courts sought to increase minority representation in city councils by forcing elections by district in jurisdictions with a history of voter discrimination," he said. "I was interested in determining the economic impact of this activity."

In the study, Boylan examined 1,809 cities that elected their entire councils at large before 1975 and changes in spending between 1977 and 2002. He found that district elections raised noninfrastructure spending -- money allocated to projects other than construction or road work -- by 9.1% during this time period.

"The increase in noninfrastructure spending could be positive if it is due to city services for the disenfranchised catching up with city services for the rest of the population," he said. "However, the increase can be negative if it is due to the 'common pool' problem, the idea that council members fully value the benefits of public spending in their district but assume only a fraction of their costs, thus leading to excess city spending."

The evidence shows that district elections lead to excess noninfrastructure spending, Boylan said, suggesting the goals of equal representation and effective governance may be at odds.

Nonetheless, raising minority representation on city councils "can help check discriminatory rhetoric, erode harmful stereotypes, create role models for minority groups, increase political consciousness and foster identification with government," he said.


The paper is available online at The study was funded by the Law and Economics Center at George Mason University School of Law.

This news release can be found online at

Follow Rice News and Media Relations on Twitter @RiceUNews.

Related materials:

Richard Boylan bio:

Richard Boylan photo:

Photo credit: Rice University

Photo link:

Located on a 300-acre forested campus in Houston, Rice University is consistently ranked among the nation's top 20 universities by U.S. News & World Report. Rice has highly respected schools of Architecture, Business, Continuing Studies, Engineering, Humanities, Music, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences and is home to the Baker Institute for Public Policy. With 3,962 undergraduates and 3,027 graduate students, Rice's undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio is just under 6-to-1. Its residential college system builds close-knit communities and lifelong friendships, just one reason why Rice is ranked No. 1 for lots of race/class interaction and No. 4 for quality of life by the Princeton Review. Rice is also rated as a best value among private universities by Kiplinger's Personal Finance.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.