News Release

Liver cancer ten times more likely in men with common genetic disorder haemochromatosis

Peer-Reviewed Publication

University of Exeter

Men who have the Western world's most common genetic disorder, haemochromatosis, are ten times more likely to develop liver cancer, according to a major new study.

Research led by the University of Exeter and published in the internationally renowned journal JAMA has led to renewed calls for routine early testing for the iron overload condition haemochromatosis, previously thought to be a lower-level health risk. The finding could add more weight to calls for the UK National Screening Committee to recommend screening for the condition, which is currently under consultation.

The new study projected that more than seven per cent of men with two copies of the faulty haemochromatosis genes would develop liver cancer by age 75, compared to just 0.6 per cent in the general population. An estimated 175,000 men and boys of European ancestry in the UK have these faulty genes. They are particularly prevalent in Celtic bloodlines, meaning the UK and parts of North America have some of the highest rates in the world.

The research is led by the University of Exeter Medical School in the UK, in collaboration with the University of Connecticut, and Western University in Ontario, and South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust. Funded by the UK Medical Research Council, the study adds to the evidence to back widespread early testing for the condition. Previously, the Exeter team found that having the haemochromatosis double faulty gene quadruples the risk of liver disease and doubles the risk of arthritis and frailty in older age groups. It also causes higher risk of diabetes and chronic pain.

Reliable tests are available to identify those at risk - blood tests for measuring iron levels (serum ferritin, transferrin saturation) and genetic testing (HFE C282Y genetic blood test). Symptoms can include feeling tired all the time, muscle weakness and joint pains, meaning it is often misdiagnosed as the signs of ageing. Most of those with liver cancer develop liver damage first, often progressing to cirrhosis of the liver. Once diagnosed, the condition is easily treated by a process similar to donating blood several times a year, to lower iron levels.

The team analysed data from 2,890 men and women with two copies of the faulty gene (called HFE C282Y homozygous), from the UK Biobank, a large biomedical database of more than half a million British men and women recruited between 2006 and 2010 from across England, Scotland and Wales. People were aged 40 to 70 at the start of the study and were followed for a nine-year period. Twenty-one of the 1,294 men with the faulty genes studied have developed liver cancer thus far, of whom 14 died due to their liver cancer. Ten of these 21 men were not diagnosed with haemochromatosis by the time they had a liver cancer diagnosis.

Haemochromatosis is more serious in men, with women partially protected because they lose iron through menstruation and childbirth, although some younger women do develop the disease. The study found no increase in liver cancer risk in women with faulty haemochromatosis genes.

Dr Janice Atkins, Research Fellow at the University of Exeter and first author of the paper, said: "The haemochromatosis faulty genes are relatively common in people with European ancestries, and are causing potentially fatal diseases such as liver cancer. Unfortunately, haemochromatosis is often diagnosed too late. Earlier diagnosis could prevent so much unnecessary disease."

Professor David Melzer, who led the team, said: "Tragically, men with the haemochromatosis faulty genes have been dying of liver cancer for many years, but this was thought to be rare. The large scale of UK Biobank study allowed us to measure cancer risk accurately. We were shocked to find that more than seven per cent of men with two faulty genes are likely to develop liver cancer by age 75, particularly considering that the UK has the second highest rate of these faulty genes in the world. Fortunately most of these cancers could be prevented with early treatment. Blood donations made during routine treatment of haemochromatosis can be used for other patients, so early diagnosis would actually be a win-win for the NHS."

Dr Jeremy Shearman, a specialist in liver disease and an adviser to the charity Haemochromatosis UK, said: "Physicians and scientists have long acknowledged that iron overload is an important co-factor fuelling the development of many serious diseases including cancer. This research is a vital step towards quantifying that risk and should raise awareness of the importance of iron in the minds of both clinicians and patients. Measurement of iron stores and recognition of the genetic risk of iron overload needs to become a routine part of health assessment and monitoring in the UK."

Professor Paul Adams Western University's Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, who has been studying haemochromatosis in Canada for more than four decades, said: "The UK Biobank project is a glimpse into the future of medicine where all known genes are tested and then treatable conditions are offered treatment before serious complications develop. An early diagnosis of haemochromatosis can be treated by regular blood donation in Canada."

Neil McClements, Chief Executive of Haemochromatosis UK, said: "This paper underlines the need for early diagnosis to save lives. We know from our work as the UK's only charity supporting people affected by genetic haemochromatosis that many men experience unnecessary suffering from liver cancer, caused by their genetic condition. But it's not just men who suffer - their families and loved ones do, too."

The NHS advises that it is important to talk to your GP if you have a parent or sibling with haemochromatosis, even if you don't have symptoms yourself - tests can be done to check if you're at risk of developing problems. People are also advised to talk to their GPs about haemochromatosis if they have the following persistent or worrying symptoms - particularly if you have a northern European family background. Typical symptoms include feeling very tired all the time (fatigue); weight loss; weakness and joint pain. Also, some men with haemochromatosis develop an inability to get or maintain an erection (erectile dysfunction), and some women have irregular periods or absent periods. These symptoms usually come on between ages 30 and 60.


The paper is entitled "Association of hemochromatosis HFE p.C282Y homozygosity with hepatic malignancy", by. Janice L Atkins, Luke C Pilling, Jane AH Masoli, Chia-Ling Kuo, Jeremy D Shearman, Paul C Adams, David Melzer, and is published in JAMA.



Useful links:
Patient charity:
Recent article providing some history on haemochromatosis:

For further information:
Louise Vennells
Press and Media Manager
University of Exeter Medical School
+44 (0)1392 724927 or 07768 511866

About the University of Exeter Medical School

The University of Exeter Medical School is part of the University of Exeter's College of Medicine and Health. Our mission is to improve the health of the South West and beyond, through the development of high quality graduates and world-leading research that has international impact. As part of a Russell Group university, we combine this world-class research with very high levels of student satisfaction. Exeter has over 19,000 students and is ranked 12th in The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2020.

The University of Exeter Medical School's Medicine course is in the top 10 in the Complete University Guide 2020.

The College's Medical Imaging programme is ranked in the top 5 in the Guardian Guide 2020 and the Complete University Guide 2020.

The University of Exeter entered the world top 20 for Biomedical and Health Sciences in the CWTS Leiden Ranking 2019, based on the percentage of publications ranked in the top 10 per cent most cited.

About UK Biobank

UK Biobank is a large-scale biomedical database and research resource containing genetic and health information from half a million UK participants.

UK Biobank's database, which includes blood samples, heart and brain scans and genetic analyses of the 500,000 volunteer participants, is globally accessible to approved researchers and scientists who are undertaking vital research into the most common and life-threatening disease.

UK Biobank recruited 500,000 people aged between 40-69 years in 2006-2010 from across the country to take part in this project. With their consent, they regularly provide blood, urine and saliva samples for analysis, as well as detailed information about their lifestyle.

UK Biobank's research resource is a major contributor in the advancement of modern medicine and treatment, enabling better understanding of the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of serious and life-threatening illnesses - including cancer, heart diseases and stroke. Over 14 years, UK Biobank has enabled several scientific discoveries that improve human health.

UK Biobank is generously supported by its founding funders the Wellcome Trust and UK Medical Research Council, as well as the Department of Health, Scottish Government and the Northwest Regional Development Agency. The organisation has over 150 dedicated members of staff, based in multiple locations across the UK.

You can find out more about UK Biobank at

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