It is easy to obtain antibiotics without prescription in retail pharmacies in China, even though selling antibiotics without a prescription conflicts with regulations, a study published in the open access journal Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control suggests. More work needs to be done to ensure that antibiotics are obtainable by subscription only, according to researchers at Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
At the G20 summit in China in 2016, a comprehensive plan to address antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was announced, which included making antibiotics prescription-only in pharmacies in all Chinese provinces by 2020. The authors investigated the degree of progress towards that goal and to quantify the proportion of pharmacies in which antibiotics could be purchased without a prescription, across the three regions of China.
Thérèse Hesketh, from Zhejiang University and University College London (UCL), the corresponding author of the study said: "Following strong leadership by the Chinese government, antimicrobial Stewardship has improved in hospitals in China over the past 10 years, but little is known about access to antibiotics in retail pharmacies. We document the ease of access to antibiotics in pharmacies without prescriptions. Care needs to be taken to enforce the regulations around these sales, as part of wider stewardship efforts to control AMR."
The authors conducted a survey in 13 Chinese provinces, using a Simulated Patient method. From July to September 2017, forty medical students acted as real patients, presenting at pharmacies with mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, but without visible symptoms. The students recorded characteristics of the pharmacies they visited, such as location, distance from the nearest hospital and whether the pharmacy was independent or part of a chain. They also recorded details of their experience, including at which stage in the process - symptoms only described, asked for antibiotics, asked for a specific antibiotic - they were offered antibiotics.
The authors found that out of a total of 1,106 pharmacies included in the study, antibiotics could be obtained without a prescription in 925 (83.6%) cases. Of these, 279 (25.2%) gave out antibiotics with only mild symptoms being described, 576 (52.1%) gave out antibiotics when specifically asked for them and 70 (6.3%) gave out antibiotics when asked for a specific type (penicillin or cephalosporins). Of the 181 (16.4%) pharmacies in which no antibiotics were offered, the reasons given included that a prescription was necessary (113 pharmacies or 10.2%), that antibiotics were not indicated (58 pharmacies or 5.2%), or that there were no antibiotics in stock (six pharmacies or 0.5%).
The authors found no significant differences in access to antibiotics between urban or rural location of the pharmacy (city, county, township or village), or between independent pharmacies and ones that were part of a chain. However, it was easier to obtain antibiotics in pharmacies more than 2km away from a hospital.
The results suggest that, in the case of retail pharmacies, little progress has been made towards the goal to make antibiotics obtainable by prescription only by 2020. The findings raise concerns about the potential role of pharmacies in antibiotics misuse and its contribution to AMR, according to the authors. They suggest that pharmacists need to be trained to explain to customers why antibiotics are refused and that public education campaigns may be needed to raise awareness of antibiotics misuse and its consequences within the general population.
The authors caution that because the far west and far north regions of China were not included in the study, national generalizability of the findings may be limited.
Senior Communications Manager
T: +44 (0) 2031 9227 44
Notes to editor:
1. Research article:
Widespread illegal sales of antibiotics in Chinese pharmacies - a nationwide cross-sectional study
Chen et al. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2020
For an embargoed copy of the research article please contact Anne Korn at BMC.
After the embargo lifts, the article will be available here: https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13756-019-0655-7
Please name the journal in any story you write. If you are writing for the web, please link to the article. All articles are available free of charge, according to BMC's open access policy.
2. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control is a global forum for all those working on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of health-care associated infections and antimicrobial resistance development in all health-care settings. The journal covers a broad spectrum of preeminent practices and best available data to the top interventional and translational research, and innovative developments in the field of infection control within the clinical and health-care context.
3. A pioneer of open access publishing, BMC has an evolving portfolio of high quality peer-reviewed journals including broad interest titles such as BMC Biology and BMC Medicine, specialist journals such as Malaria Journal and Microbiome, and the BMC series. At BMC, research is always in progress. We are committed to continual innovation to better support the needs of our communities, ensuring the integrity of the research we publish, and championing the benefits of open research. BMC is part of Springer Nature, giving us greater opportunities to help authors connect and advance discoveries across the world.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control