Through a series of investigations in mice and humans, Johns Hopkins researchers have identified a protein that appears to be the target of both antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Results of their experiments explain how these therapies likely work to relieve depression by stimulating stem cells in the brain to grow and mature. In addition, the researchers say, these experiments raise the possibility of predicting individual people's response to depression therapy, and fine-tuning treatment accordingly. Reports on separate aspects of the research were published in December on the Molecular Psychiatry website, and will also appear in the Feb. 7 issue of Cell Stem Cell.
"Previous studies have shown that antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy both activate neural stem cells in the adult brain to divide and form new neurons," says Hongjun Song, Ph.D., a professor of neurology and director of the Stem Cell Program at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Institute for Cell Engineering. "What were missing were the specific molecules linking antidepressant treatment and stem cell activation."
To make that link, Song's team and its collaborators assembled a body of evidence from different types of experiments. In one, they compared gene activity in the brains of mice that had and had not been treated with electroconvulsive therapy, looking specifically at genes with protein products that are known to regulate neural stem cells. The comparison turned up differences in the activity of one inhibitor gene for a chemical chain reaction that had been previously implicated in stimulating neural stem cells. Specifically, the therapy reduced the amount of protein the inhibitor gene, sFRP3, produced, which would in turn have given the growth-stimulating chain reaction freer rein.
To learn more about sFRP3's effects, the team next compared normal mice with mice that had been engineered to lack the sFRP3 protein. They found that the modified mice behaved like normal mice on antidepressants; moreover, giving antidepressants to the modified mice did not further change their behavior. This strongly suggested that antidepressants work by blocking sFRP3; without sFRP3, the modified mice had nothing to block.
In order to tie their mouse work to what happens in the human brain, the researchers next analyzed genetic information from 541 depression patients and tracked their response to a course of antidepressant drugs. The team found three common variations in the human version of sFRP3 that were linked to a better response to therapy. Wondering what these variations actually did, the researchers searched a database that correlates gene sequences to gene activity in the human brain. All three variations caused less gene activity, they found, meaning that there likely would have been less inhibitor.
Song notes that sFRP3 is also regulated by other conditions, including exercise. "This gene's activity is very sensitive to the amount of activity in the brain, so sFRP3 seems to be a gatekeeper that links activity to new neuron growth," he says. The finding has two major near-term implications, he says: It could lead to genetic tests that enable doctors to predict a patient's response to antidepressants, and it provides a target for potential new therapies for the disease.
The studies were supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (grant numbers MH090115 and MH087874), the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (grant numbers NS048271, NS047344 and NS080913), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (grant number HD069184), the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (grant number ES021957), the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund, the International Mental Health Research Organization and the Max Planck Society.
Other authors on the Cell Stem Cell article are Mi-Hyeon Jang, Michael A. Bonaguidi, Yasuji Kitabatake, Jiaqi Sun, Juan Song, Eunchai Kang, Heechul Jun, Chun Zhong, Yijing Su, Junjie U. Guo, Marie Xun Wang, Kurt A. Sailor, Ju-Young Kim, Yuan Gao, Kimberly M. Christian and Guo-li Ming of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Other authors on the Molecular Psychiatry article are Mi-Hyeon Jang, Yasuji Kitabatake, Eunchai Kang, Heechul Jun, Mikhail V. Pletnikov, Kimberly M. Christian and Guo-li Ming of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; René Hen of Columbia University; and Susanne Lucae and Elizabeth B. Binder of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry.
Link to Molecular Psychiatry paper: http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/mp2012158a.html
Video: Hongjun Song on using stem cells in the brain to study mental disorders: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/institute_cell_engineering/_includes/videos/Transcriptions/Song_txn.html
Brain's Stem Cells 'Eavesdrop' to Find Out When to Act: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/brains_stem_cells_eavesdrop_to_find_out_when_to_act
Growth of New Brain Cells Requires 'Epigenetic' Switch: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/growth_of_new_brain_cells_requires_epigenetic_switch
Johns Hopkins Researcher Shares Society for Neuroscience Young Investigator Award: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/Johns_Hopkins_Researcher_Shares_Society_For_Neuroscience_Young_Investigator_Award
Johns Hopkins Scientists Discover 'Fickle' DNA Changes in Brain: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/johns_hopkins_scientists_discover_fickle_dna_changes_in_brain
Normal Role for Schizophrenia Risk Gene Identified: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/Normal_Role_for_Schizophrenia_Risk_Gene_Identified
Love in the Laboratory: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/dome/0512/holiday4.cfm
Cell Stem Cell