News Release

New study finds evidence of changing seasons, rain on Titan's north pole

Peer-Reviewed Publication

American Geophysical Union

WASHINGTON -- An image from the international Cassini spacecraft provides evidence of rainfall on the north pole of Titan, the largest of Saturn's moons. The rainfall would be the first indication of the start of a summer season in the moon's northern hemisphere.

"The whole Titan community has been looking forward to seeing clouds and rains on Titan's north pole, indicating the start of the northern summer, but despite what the climate models had predicted, we weren't even seeing any clouds," said Rajani Dhingra, a doctoral student in physics at the University of Idaho in Moscow, and lead author of the new study accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union. "People called it the curious case of missing clouds."

Dhingra and her colleagues identified a reflective feature near Titan's north pole on an image taken June 7, 2016, by Cassini's near-infrared instrument, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer. The reflective feature covered approximately 46,332 square miles, roughly half the size of the Great Lakes, and did not appear on images from previous and subsequent Cassini passes.

Analyses of the short-term reflective feature suggested it likely resulted from sunlight reflecting off a wet surface. The study attributes the reflection to a methane rainfall event, followed by a probable period of evaporation.

"It's like looking at a sunlit wet sidewalk," Dhingra said.

This reflective surface represents the first observations of summer rainfall on the moon's northern hemisphere. If compared to Earth's yearly cycle of four seasons, a season on Titan lasts seven Earth years. Cassini arrived at Titan during the southern summer and observed clouds and rainfall in the southern hemisphere. Climate models of Titan predicted similar weather would occur in the northern hemisphere in the years leading up to the northern summer solstice in 2017. But, by 2016, the expected cloud cover in the northern hemisphere had not appeared. This observation may help scientists gain a more complete understanding of Titan's seasons.

"We want our model predictions to match our observations. This rainfall detection proves Cassini's climate follows the theoretical climate models we know of," Dhingra said. "Summer is happening. It was delayed, but it's happening. We will have to figure out what caused the delay, though."

Additional analyses suggest the methane rain fell across a relatively pebble-like surface, Dhingra said. A rougher surface generates an amorphous pattern as the liquid settles in crevasses and gullies, while liquid falling on a smooth surface would puddle in a relatively circular pattern.

Dhingra is using the wet sidewalk effect to search for additional rain events on Titan as part of her research.


This press release and accompanying images can be found at:

AGU Press Contact:

Lauren Lipuma
+1 (202) 777-7396

University of Idaho Press Contact:

Leigh Cooper
+1 (208) 885-1048

Contact information for the researchers:

Rajani Dhingra
University of Idaho
+1 (401) 225-3329

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Notes for Journalists

This paper is freely available for 30 days. Journalists and public information officers (PIOs) can download a PDF copy of the article by clicking on this link:

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Neither the paper nor this press release is under embargo.

Paper Title:

"Observational evidence for summer rainfall at Titan's north pole"


Rajani D. Dhingra: Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA;

Jason W. Barnes: Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA;

Robert H. Brown: Dept. of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, AZ, USA;

Bonnie J. Buratti and Christophe Sotin: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, CA, USA;

Philip D. Nicholson: Cornell University, Astronomy Dept., NY, USA;

Kevin H. Baines: Space Science & Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA;

Roger N. Clark: U.S.G.S., Denver, CO, USA;

Jason M. Soderblom: Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, MA, USA;

Ralf Jaumann: Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany;

Sebastien Rodriguez: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP);

Stéphane Le Mouélic: Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, Universite de Nantes, France;

Elizabeth P. Turtle: John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, MD, USA;

Jason E. Perry: University of Arizona, AZ, USA;

Valeria Cottini: John Hopkins University, MD, USA;

Don E. Jennings: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD, USA.

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