News Release

Human excrement efficiently converted to hydrochar -- World Toilet Day Nov. 19

Heating the waste could improve sanitation and provide a reusable energy source, according to Ben-Gurion University researchers

Peer-Reviewed Publication

American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

BEER-SHEVA... November 15, 2018 - Researchers from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) demonstrated for the first time that raw human excrement can potentially be converted to a safe, reusable fuel and a nutrient rich fertilizer, solving two major worldwide issues in advance of World Toilet Day on November 19.

According to the groundbreaking pilot study published in the Journal of Cleaner Production, researchers at BGU's Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research have refined a process using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to heat raw solid human waste in a designated "pressure cooker" and convert excreta into hydrochar: a safe, reusable biomass fuel resembling charcoal.

The BGU researchers conducted similar research last year on poultry excrement.

The discovery addresses two challenges prevalent in the developing world: sanitation and growing energy needs. While access to waste treatment worldwide has expanded significantly in recent years, approximately 2.3 billion people still lack basic sanitation services, according to the World Health Organization. Of those, 892 million people - mostly in rural areas - defecate in the open. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sees sanitation as a major world health issue and has launched the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge & Expo to address this problem.

"Human excreta are considered hazardous due to their potential to transmit disease," says Prof. Amit Gross, who is the newly appointed director of the Zuckerberg Institute. "While it is rich in organic matter nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, human waste also contains micro pollutants from pharmaceuticals, which can lead to environmental problems if not disposed or reused properly."

Energy scarcity is also a challenge in these regions. Approximately two billion people worldwide use solid biomass, especially wood, which is converted into charcoal and then used for cooking and heating. But these practices also leave a footprint on the environment: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, and soil erosion.

"By treating human waste properly, we can address both of these issues at once," Prof. Gross says.

In the study, the researchers subjected the raw waste through HTC to three temperatures (180, 210 and 240° C) and reaction times (30, 60 and 120 minutes). The solids become dehydrated, creating a combustible solid substance known as hydrochar, as well as a nutrient-rich aqueous phase liquid.

The researchers, including doctoral candidates Reut Yahav Spitzer and Vivian Mau, said the reaction that creates the hydrochar sterilizes the waste material, so it becomes safe to handle. The "coals" can potentially be utilized for household heating and cooking, while the liquid byproduct (the aqueous phase) could be used as fertilizer.


The study was funded by the Rosenzweig-Coopersmith Foundation and the Israeli Water Authority.

About BGU's Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research

The Zuckerberg Institute for Water Research, Israel's largest and leading water institute, conducts interdisciplinary, cutting-edge research and graduate education in water sciences, aimed at improving human well-being through technologies and policies for sustainable use of water resources. World-renowned Zuckerberg researchers are focused on desalination technologies and groundwater production, water quality and microbiology, as well as water resource economics and management. Zuckerberg graduate programs attract students from all corners of the world who are involved in research projects and collaborations in both developed and underdeveloped countries. Named for New York philanthropist Roy J. Zuckerberg, the Institute was founded in 2002 within the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research at the Sede Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

About American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (AABGU) plays a vital role in sustaining David Ben-Gurion's vision: creating a world-class institution of education and research in the Israeli desert, nurturing the Negev community and sharing the University's expertise locally and around the globe. As Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) looks ahead to turning 50 in 2020, AABGU imagines a future that goes beyond the walls of academia. It is a future where BGU invents a new world and inspires a vision for a stronger Israel and its next generation of leaders. Together with supporters, AABGU will help the University foster excellence in teaching, research and outreach to the communities of the Negev for the next 50 years and beyond. Visit to learn more.

AABGU, which is headquartered in Manhattan, has nine regional offices throughout the United States. For more information, visit

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.