• Coffee consumption stimulates digestive processes and helps movement through the colon 1- 3
• Coffee may change our gut microbiota, increasing the number of ‘good bacteria’ 4-8
• Research supports the protective effects of coffee against certain liver diseases 9-23 and reduced risk of gallstones 24-31
19 January 2022: A new scientific review, published in Nutrients, highlights coffee’s effects on digestion and the gut, and its impact on organs involved in digestion. The review, supported by The Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC), finds that coffee has a stimulating effect on some digestive processes, and a possible protective effect against common digestive complaints such as gallstones24-31 as well as certain liver diseases9-23.
The review of 194 research publications suggests that moderate coffee consumption (defined by EFSA as 3-5 cups per day32) was not found to generate harmful effects on the various organs of the digestive tract. Two areas of particular interest emerging from the research are the association between coffee and a reduced risk of gallstones24-31 and the evidence linking coffee consumption with a reduced risk of pancreatitis, although more research is still needed33, 34.
On its journey through the gastrointestinal tract, coffee has three main impacts:
- Coffee is associated with gastric, biliary and pancreatic secretions, all necessary for the digestion of food. Coffee was found to stimulate production of the digestive hormone gastrin; and hydrochloric acid, present in gastric juice – both of which help break down food in the stomach35-39. Coffee also stimulates the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone that increases the production of bile, also involved in digestion40, 41.
- Coffee appears to be associated with changes in the composition of gut microbiota. In the reviewed studies, coffee consumption was found to induce changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, mainly at the population level of Bifidobacteria4-8 – a ubiquitous inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Coffee is associated with colon motility – the process by which food travels through the digestive tract. The data reviewed suggests that coffee may stimulate motility in the colon as much as cereals, 23% more than decaffeinated coffee or 60% more than a glass of water1 and it may be linked to a reduced risk of chronic constipation2, 3.
The latest research also strongly supports the protective effect of coffee against liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma15 – one of the most common types of liver cancer.
Despite the evidence to suggest coffee consumption may support with the first stages of digestion, most data did not support the finding that coffee had a direct effect on gastro-oesophageal reflux41. Instead, this is a combined or additive effect of other risk factors such as obesity and a poor diet.
The new review, titled ‘Effects of coffee on the gastro-intestinal tract: a narrative review and literature update’ was conducted by Astrid Nehlig, Ph.D., Emeritus Research Director at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM).
Nehlig commented, “Contrary to some assumptions, coffee consumption is not overall linked to bowel or digestive problems. In some instances, coffee has a protective effect against common digestive complaints such as constipation. Emerging data also indicate there may be an association with improved levels of gut bacterial groups such as Bifidobacteria which have recognised beneficial effects. Although additional data will be needed to understand coffee’s effects throughout the digestive tract, this is an extremely encouraging place to begin.”
Readers interested in finding out more about coffee & health can visit: www.coffeeandhealth.org
Notes to editors
- Moderate coffee consumption can be defined as 3–5 cups per day, based on the European Food Safety Authority’s review of caffeine safety32.
- To read an overview of research into coffee and digestion, please visit here.
- ISIC press office team contact information: email@example.com.
Research leader for the report
- Astrid Nehlig, Ph.D., is Emeritus Research Director at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM).
The Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC) is a not-for-profit organization, established in 1990 and devoted to the study and disclosure of science related to “coffee and health.” Since 2003 ISIC also supports a pan-European education programme, working in partnership with national coffee associations in nine countries to convey current scientific knowledge on “coffee and health” to healthcare professionals.
ISIC’s activities are focused on:
- The study of scientific matters related to “coffee and health”
- The collection and evaluation of studies and scientific information about “coffee and health”
- The support of independent scientific research on “coffee and health”
- Active dissemination of balanced “coffee and health” scientific research and knowledge to a broad range of stakeholders
ISIC respects scientific research ethics in all its activities. ISIC’s communications are based on sound science and rely on scientific studies derived from peer-reviewed scientific journals and other publications.
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The website www.coffeeandhealth.org is a science-based resource developed for healthcare and other professional audiences and provides the latest information and research into coffee, caffeine and health.
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Method of Research
Subject of Research
Effects of Coffee on the Gastro-Intestinal Tract: A Narrative Review and Literature Update
Article Publication Date
Supported by the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC)