Martin Fränzl and Professor Frank Cichos have now found that they can generate very strong fluid flows even in the tiniest of channels by heating a very thin metal film on one side of the channel with a focused laser beam. The flows originate in an ultra-thin liquid layer just a few nanometres above the surface of the metal and mix the liquid in the channel with a specific flow pattern. Fränzl measured this flow pattern using nanoparticles as tracers. Not only have the scientists succeeded in exploring the origin of these currents, but they have also shown that they can capture, separate or transport nano-objects by cleverly combining currents and controlling other forces remotely by laser.
“This is fascinating,” said Fränzl, “because it allows us to control how objects and fluids move at the nanoscale without moving the entire fluid in the channels.” Similar approaches are already being used in a project run by the joint Transregio / Collaborative Research Centre 102 at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and Leipzig University to study the formation of protein aggregates involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases.
Both researchers are particularly interested in combining these laser-driven thermofluidics with machine learning techniques in order to create automated smart nanofactories – for nanoscale manufacturing, programmed material manipulation and sensor technologies – that optimise and adapt to new requirements based on the information they collect.
“We believe that thermofluidics will help us develop new technologies and solutions that may be highly useful for new collaborative projects such as the µChem initiative, which combines physics, chemistry, biochemistry and artificial intelligence in microenvironments,” said Professor Detlev Belder from the Institute of Analytical Chemistry at Leipzig University’s Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy. This paves the way for lab-on-a-chip applications.
The method was developed in collaboration with b-ACTmatter, the Interfaculty Centre for Bioactive Matter, which is being funded under the federal programme STARK. STARK was set up to promote the transformation process in coal regions. b-ACTmatter aims to develop new materials and technologies that contribute to an innovative, sustainable and circular development of the economy.
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Hydrodynamic manipulation of nano-objects by optically induced thermo-osmotic flows
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