An international report with recommendations designed to counteract school-related sedentary behaviour in children and youth, exacerbated by COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, has been released by the Sedentary Behaviour Research Network (SBRN), in partnership with the University of Prince Edward Island and the CHEO Research Institute.
The report, International School-Related Sedentary Behaviour Recommendations for Children and Youth, is a world first and aspires to inform and guide students, educators, school administrators, policymakers, parent and guardians, caregivers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in the promotion of student health and wellness.
“High levels of sedentary behaviour, especially screen time, are associated with negative health and academic outcomes for school-aged children and youth,” said Dr. Travis Saunders, lead author of the new recommendations and Associate Professor of Applied Human Sciences at the University of Prince Edward Island. “Given that the school day is largely sedentary and with screen time taking on an increasingly important role for many students since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, these new evidence-based recommendations are timely and provide globally applicable guidance for managing sedentary behaviours performed during the school day or as homework.”
Since the COVID-19 pandemic began two years ago, children and youth across Canada and around the world have spent unprecedented time sedentary in front of digital screens for school and recreation purposes. Sedentary behaviours are activities done while awake that involve low-energy expenditure while sitting or lying down. The World Health Organization and many countries, including Canada, have developed guidelines for minimizing the health impacts of sedentary behaviour; however, these recommendations focus on overall sedentary behaviour and recreational screen time. To date, there have not been any evidence-based recommendations specifically related to sedentary behaviours performed during the school day or as homework.
Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, most children were not meeting public health guidelines for sedentary behaviours and recreational screen time, noted Dr. Saunders.
SBRN convened an international panel of experts to prepare draft recommendations and consulted 148 stakeholders from 23 countries to produce the final recommendations that are listed below. Full details of the recommendation development process were published on April 5, 2022, in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. The recommendations have already been translated into Arabic, Chinese, Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Inuktitut, Nepalese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swahili, and Vietnamese, all of which are available on the SBRN website.
A healthy school-day includes:
- Breaking up periods of extended sedentary behaviour with both scheduled and unscheduled movement breaks
- at least once every 30 minutes for ages 5–11 years
- at least once every hour for ages 12–18 years
- consider a variety of intensities and durations (e.g., standing, stretching breaks, moving to another classroom, active lessons, active breaks).
- Incorporating different types of movement (e.g., light activities that require movement of any body parts, and moderate to vigorous activities that require greater physical effort) into homework whenever possible, and limiting sedentary homework to no more than 10 minutes per day, per grade level. For example, in Canada this means typically no more than 10 minutes per day in grade 1, or 60 minutes per day in grade 6.
- Regardless of the location, school-related screen time should be meaningful, mentally or physically active, and serve a specific pedagogical purpose that enhances learning compared to alternative methods. When school-related screen time is warranted,
- limit time on devices, especially for students 5–11 years of age;
- take a device break at least once every 30 minutes;
- discourage media-multitasking in the classroom and while doing homework;
- avoid screen-based homework within an hour of bedtime.
- Replacing sedentary learning activities with movement-based learning activities (including standing) and replacing screen-based learning activities with non-screen-based learning activities (e.g., outdoor lessons) can further support students’ health and wellbeing.
“The goal of these recommendations is to help maximize the benefits and minimize the harms of school-related sedentary behaviours,” said Dr. Mark Tremblay, Chair of SBRN, Senior Scientist at the CHEO Research Institute, and Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Ottawa. “In 2020, the ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth gave Canadian children and youth a D+ grade for sedentary behaviours, and during the pandemic, the grade has plummeted further. These new recommendations will help schools be part of the solution.”
“We hope these recommendations help principals, teachers, parents, and students to contain unnecessary sedentary behaviour and screen time,” added Melanie Davis, Executive Director of Physical and Health Education Canada and a contributor to the recommendations. “We all need to work together to recalibrate the healthy movement behaviours of children and youth.”
Saunders et al. International School-Related Sedentary Behaviour Recommendations for Children and Youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Kuzik et al. School-Related Sedentary Behaviours and Indicators of Health and Well-Being Among Children and Youth: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
About the Sedentary Behaviour Research Network:
The Sedentary Behaviour Research Network (SBRN) is the only global organization for researchers and health professionals that focuses specifically on the health impact of sedentary behaviour. SBRN's mission is to connect sedentary behaviour researchers and health professionals working in all fields of study, and to disseminate this research to the academic community and to the public at large.
About the University of Prince Edward Island
The University of Prince Edward Island is committed to assisting students reach their full potential in the classroom and community. With an excellent reputation for academic excellence and research innovation, UPEI offers a wide range of programs and degrees to undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral students. Home to Canada Research Chairs, a UNESCO Chair in Island Studies and Sustainability, endowed and sponsored research chairs, and 3M National Teaching Fellows, UPEI offers its students access to exceptional faculty, researchers, and staff. Students come from local, regional, national, and international locations to study and learn at UPEI, the only degree-granting institution in the province. UPEI is proud to be a key contributor to the growth and prosperity of Prince Edward Island.
About the CHEO Research Institute
The CHEO Research Institute coordinates the research activities of CHEO and is affiliated with the University of Ottawa. The seven programs of research at CHEO RI focus on a full spectrum of pediatric topics. Key themes include cancer, diabetes, obesity, mental health, emergency medicine, musculoskeletal health, electronic health information and privacy, and genetics of rare disease. At the CHEO Research Institute, discoveries inspire the best life for every child and youth. For more information, visit cheoresearch.ca.
About the University of Ottawa
The University of Ottawa is home to over 50,000 students, faculty and staff, who live, work and study in both French and English. Our campus is a crossroads of cultures and ideas, where bold minds come together to inspire game-changing ideas. We are one of Canada’s top 10 research universities—our professors and researchers explore new approaches to today’s challenges. One of a handful of Canadian universities ranked among the top 200 in the world, we attract exceptional thinkers and welcome diverse perspectives from across the globe. www.uottawa.ca
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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