News Release

The sampling efficiencies of commercial nasopharyngeal swabs

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Compuscript Ltd

Upper respiratory tract samples are the most commonly used samples for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. The samples collected from the nasopharynx are preferred for viral nucleic acids detection.


Commercial nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) are the major factor that influences the sampling quality. The authors of this article evaluated the acceptability and efficiency of NPSs from five manufacturers by examining the concentration of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH) retrieved from the swabs using the RT-PCR method. Significant different concentrations of GAPDH were detected, ranged from 4.36 × 108 copies/mL to 6.98 × 1010 copies/mL among the five swabs (p < 0.05). The designation of the swab head, with or without tip expansion, had limited influence on the collection efficiency. The discrepancy among the NPSs emphasized the improvement of the swab head material.


Keywords: Nasopharyngeal swabs; Nucleic acids; Efficiency; Designation


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Biosafety and Health is sponsored by the Chinese Medical Association, managed by National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC).

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CiteScore: 4.8


ISSN 2590-0536

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Article reference: Ying Wang, Geng Wang, Lulu Zhang, Lili Ren, Jianwei Wang, The sampling efficiencies of commercial nasopharyngeal swabs, Biosafety and Health, 2022, ISSN 2590-0536,

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