News Release

Nordic lower-protein diet could hold key to instilling healthier eating habits in babies, new study finds

Starting babies and toddlers on a lower protein Nordic-style diet with a greater focus on plant-based food may be the key to healthier eating habits

Reports and Proceedings


(Copenhagen, 23 June 2022) Starting babies and toddlers on a lower protein Nordic-style diet with a greater focus on plant-based food may be the key to healthier eating habits, according to new research1 being presented today at the 54th Annual Meeting of the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN).

Babies fed taster portions of the new Nordic diet of fruit, berries, roots, and vegetables, as well as breast or formula milk, from the age of 4-6 months of age, were eating almost double the number of vegetables (46% more), than those fed a conventional diet, by 18 months of age.

Researchers from the University of Umeå, Sweden, Stockholm County Council Centre for Epidemiology, and the University of California, USA, followed two groups of babies from 4-6 months through to 18 months, as part of the OTIS trial (see editor’s notes below). A total of 250 babies took part and 82% completed the trial.

The study found marked differences in the dietary habits of the toddlers in the 2 groups. Those on the new Nordic diet, who had been supplied with Nordic home-made baby food recipes, protein-reduced baby food products, and offered parental support via social media, consumed 42-45% more fruit and vegetables at 12-18 months of age, compared to those who were fed the conventional diet currently recommended by the Swedish Food Agency.

While fruit consumption within the conventional group remained consistent, babies fed the conventional diet reduced their vegetable intake by 36% between 12-18 months.

Babies on the Nordic diet had an average protein intake 17-29% lower than those on the conventional diet at 12-18 months of age. This was still within recommended protein intake levels and the overall calorie count between the two groups was the same. The protein reduction in the Nordic diet group was replaced by more carbohydrates from vegetables, not more cereals, together with some extra fat from rapeseed oil.

Lead researcher Dr Ulrica Johansson, a Medicine Doctor in paediatrics and registered dietitian at the University of Umeå, Sweden, said there did not appear to be any negative effects from having a lower protein intake.

Commenting on the findings, Dr Johansson says: “A Nordic diet with reduced protein introduced to infants naive to this model of eating, increased the intake of fruit, berries, vegetables, and roots, establishing a preferable eating pattern lasting over a 12-month period.”

“There were no negative effects on breastfeeding duration, iron status or growth.”

“A Nordic diet reduced in protein is safe, feasible and may contribute to sustainable and healthy eating during infancy and early childhood,” she added.

The novel research could pave the way to broadening the taste spectrum in infants and potentially provide an effective strategy for instilling healthier eating habits early in life.

The Nordic diet has a higher intake of regionally and seasonally produced fruit, berries, vegetables, herbs, mushrooms, tubers, and legumes, as well as whole grains, vegetable fats and oils, fish and eggs, and a lower intake of sweets, desserts and dairy, meat, and meat products.

Typical Nordic fruits include the lingonberry, buckthorn berry, cranberry, raspberry, and blueberry, as well as fibre-rich vegetables such as turnip, beets, swede, root celery, carrots, parsnip, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and kale. 

Chair of the ESPGHAN Nutrition Committee, Professor Jiri Bronsky, stated: “The authors have shown a significant effect of the diet in 12 and 18 months of age of the children. The Nordic diet group consumed more fruit and vegetables and less protein than the control group. The Nordic diet was well tolerated and did not negatively affect growth of the child or breastfeeding duration. Importantly, this research demonstrates that this diet is safe, feasible and exposes infants to a variety of flavours which may influence long-lasting food preferences.”

- ENDS -

Notes to Editors

The OTIS randomised controlled trial (RCT) compared the effects of a protein-reduced, Nordic multicomponent diet intervention with the current complementary feeding regime on growth, metabolic markers, dietary intake and eating behaviour from the initiation of complementary feeding at 4-6 months until 18 months of age.

The OTIS trial aimed also to compare the effects on body composition, cognitive development, and faecal microbiota composition up to 18 months of age. The RCT study design was used to examine two equal groups where one group is exposed to an intervention and one group has as a control function, which allow comparisons between groups and the evaluation of the effects of the Nordic protein-reduced diet (intervention) compared to normal conditions (control).

For further information, to speak to Dr Johansson or an ESPGHAN expert, please contact Sean Deans at or call +44 (0) 208 154 6396.

Any use of this press release must reference the 54th Annual Meeting of The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN).


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About the Expert

Dr Ulrica Johansson is a Doctor of Medicine in paediatrics and registered dietician from the Pediatrics unit in the Department of Clinical Sciences at Umeå University in Sweden.


The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) is a multi-professional organisation whose aim is to promote the health of children with special attention to the gastrointestinal tract, liver and nutritional status, through knowledge creation, the dissemination of science based information, the promotion of best practice in the delivery of care and the provision of high quality education for paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition professionals in Europe and beyond. Find out more by visiting

About the 54th Annual Meeting of ESPGHAN

The 54th Annual Meeting of ESPGHAN is taking place from 23-25 June 2022, in Copenhagen, Denmark. Every year the ESPGHAN Annual Meeting attracts over 4,600 experts and key opinion leaders in the field of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition from 100 countries across Europe and all five continents, turning it into the largest conference of its kind worldwide.

For more information about the ESPGHAN Annual Meeting, including to view the programme, please visit:

Follow ESPGHAN on Twitter: @ESPGHANSociety


  1. Johansson U, et al. (2022). A randomised, controlled trial of a Nordic, protein-reduced complementary diet: Effects on dietary intake, biomarkers and growth until 18 months of age. Presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of ESPGHAN in Copenhagen, 22–25 June 2022.

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