In order to maintain cellular homeostasis (i.e., a state of equilibrium), cells undergo selective autophagy or self-degradation of unwanted proteins. Autophagy receptors control this process, by mediating the selection of a target protein that is then “cleared.”
Tau proteins—which otherwise play an important role in stabilizing and maintaining the internal organization of neurons in the brain—abnormally accumulate inside neurons in conditions like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This build-up of hyper-phosphorylated tau proteins (or tau oligomers) causes the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and eventual cell death of neurons in the brains of people with dementia, contributing to the disease’s progressive neurodegenerative symptoms. Now, while tau proteins can be degraded by selective autophagy, the exact mechanism of how this occurs remains a mystery.
In a recent breakthrough, however, a study done by scientists at the National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology in Japan proved the critical role played by a certain gene—the p62 gene—in the selective autophagy of tau oligomers. The team included researcher Maiko Ono, and group leader Naruhiko Sahara—both from the Department of Functional Brain Imaging at the National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology in Japan. Their paper, published in Aging Cell, was made available online on 5 June 2022.
Previous studies have reported that the abnormal accumulation of the tau proteins may be selectively suppressed by autophagy pathways, through the p62 receptor protein (which is a selective autophagy receptor protein). Says Maiko Ono, “This protein’s ubiquitin-binding ability helps in the identification of toxic protein aggregates (like tau oligomers), which can then be degraded by cellular processes and organelles.”
This study’s novelty, however, lay in the demonstration of p62’s “neuroprotective” role in a living model, which had never been done before. So, how did the researchers achieve this? They used mouse models of dementia. The p62 gene had been deleted (or knocked out) in one group of these mice, so they did not express p62 receptor proteins.
On studying the brains of these mice using immunostaining and comparative biochemical analyses, an interesting picture was revealed. Neurotoxic tau protein aggregates were found in the hippocampus—the area of the brain associated with memory—and brainstem—the center that coordinates the body’s breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure, and other voluntary processes—of p62 knockout (KO) mice. When we consider this along with the symptoms of dementia, which include memory loss, confusion, and mood changes, these findings make a lot of sense.
MRI scans revealed that the hippocampus of p62 KO mice was degenerated (atrophied) and inflamed. A postmortem assessment of their brains revealed a greater loss of neurons in their hippocampus. Further immunofluorescent studies showed that the abnormal tau species aggregates can cause cytotoxicity leading to inflammation and cell death of neurons in p62 KO mice. Oligomeric tau, specifically, accumulated more in the brains of p62 KO mice.
Overall, the findings of this study prove that by eliminating and, hence, preventing the aggregation of oligomeric tau species in the brain, p62 played a neuroprotective role in models of dementia.
At a time when researchers across the word are trying to develop drugs for dementia and other related neurodegenerative disorders, the findings of this study will be of great importance in providing evidence for the accurate targeting of tau oligomers. The global population of ageing humans is increasing each year; hence, the need to develop methods to slow down the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases is also expanding. This study provides a positive step towards addressing that need.
“Central role for p62/SQSTM1 in the elimination of toxic tau species in a mouse model of tauopathy”
Maiko Ono, Masaaki Komatsu, Bin Ji, Yuhei Takado, Masafumi Shimojo, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Eiji Warabi, Toru Yanagawa, Gen Matsumoto, Ichio Aoki, Nicholas M Kanaan, Tetsuya Suhara, Naruhiko Sahara, Makoto Higuchi, “Aging Cell”, 5 June 2022, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13615
About National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology, Japan
The National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST) was established in April 2016 to promote quantum science and technology in a comprehensive and integrated manner. The new organization was formed from the merger of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) with certain operations that were previously undertaken by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA).
QST’s mission is to raise the level of quantum and radiological sciences and technologies through its commitment to research and development into quantum science and technology, the effect of radiation on humans, radiation emergency medicine, and the medical use of radiation.
To ensure that research and development delivers significant academic, social and economic impacts, and to maximize benefits from global innovation, QST is striving to establish world-leading research and development platforms, explore new fields, and serve as a center for radiation protection and radiation emergency medicine.
About Naruhiko Sahara from National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST), Japan
Naruhiko Sahara currently leads the Brain Disease Modeling Team of the Department of Functional Brain Imaging in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan. A Ph.D from the Graduate School of Science and Technology in Tokyo University of Science, Naruhiko Sahara has more than 30 years of research experience. He has done extensive work in the fields of neuroscience, molecular biology, and molecular and brain imaging.
About Maiko Ono from National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST), Japan
Maiko Ono, a researcher with QST, Japan, has about 40 research papers credited to them. Their field of interest includes molecular biology and neurobiology. They have done extensive work in the field of neurodegenerative diseases.
This study was supported by the following grants and funders:
National Institutes of Health, Grant/Award Number: NIH AG044372 and NIH NS081730; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant/Award Number: 19K06896, 21H00446 and 26117011; AMED, Grant/Award Number: JP19dk0207049, JP21dm0207072 and JP21dk027046.
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Central role for p62/SQSTM1 in the elimination of toxic tau species in a mouse model of tauopathy
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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.