Osaka, Japan – Mobile phones from a few decades ago look like antiquated plastic toys today. That's an example of the dramatic miniaturization of modern electronics, as well as added functionality. Unfortunately, this miniaturization comes with a problem: the challenge of dissipating heat. This challenge limits the functionality of ultra-small electronic devices. For practical applications, the solution to heat dissipation must incorporate a means of modulating the temperature at which the device changes its speed of heat transmission.
Now, in a study recently published in Nano Letters, researchers from Osaka University and collaborating partners have experimentally modulated the thermal switching temperature of block copolymers. This study will help researchers cheaply modulate the temperature of organic electronic devices by changing the speed of the heat transmission, and thus help solve an important challenge of device miniaturization.
"Liquid-crystalline, nanostructured block copolymers are ideal for our work," explains first author Takafumi Ishibe. "By using changes in temperature to modulate the anisotropy of the nanostructures, one can easily modulate the thermal conductivity of the polymer."
One component—known as the mesogen—of the polymer undergoes a phase transition (from cylindrical to spherical nanostructuring) upon crossing a temperature threshold. This temperature is known as the transition temperature. In other words, the anisotropy—and thus the thermal conductivity—of the polymer depends on the temperature.
The key to the researchers' work is that tuning the chemical composition of the mesogen is an easy means of changing the transition temperature. That is, by straightforward chemical synthesis, one can easily adjust the temperature at which the anisotropy changes occur, and thus change the speed of heat transmission from the polymer.
"We adjusted the transition temperature over the range of 90°C to 147°C by judicious choice of the mesogen," says senior author Yoshiaki Nakamura. "Conductivity-switching was fully reversible, and the difference between the on and off state was approximately 2, which is comparable to the conventional values of various thermal switch reported in the preceding studies."
Many researchers have changed the on/off ratio of thermal conductivity-switching materials. However, this study is the first to experimentally focus on modulating the thermal switching temperature by controlling the transition temperature of such materials. By doing so, Nakamura and coworkers have imparted practical functionality to block copolymers that undergo thermal conductivity-switching, and at low cost. This innovation holds great promise for the sustainability of thermal management in upcoming advanced technologies.
The article, "Tunable thermal switch via order-order transition in liquid crystalline block copolymer," was published in Nano Letters at DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01100
About Osaka University
Osaka University was founded in 1931 as one of the seven imperial universities of Japan and is now one of Japan's leading comprehensive universities with a broad disciplinary spectrum. This strength is coupled with a singular drive for innovation that extends throughout the scientific process, from fundamental research to the creation of applied technology with positive economic impacts. Its commitment to innovation has been recognized in Japan and around the world, being named Japan's most innovative university in 2015 (Reuters 2015 Top 100) and one of the most innovative institutions in the world in 2017 (Innovative Universities and the Nature Index Innovation 2017). Now, Osaka University is leveraging its role as a Designated National University Corporation selected by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to contribute to innovation for human welfare, sustainable development of society, and social transformation.
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Tunable Thermal Switch via Order-Order Transition in Liquid Crystalline Block Copolymer
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