The present pandemic has posed a crisis to the economy of the world and the health sector. Therefore, the race to expand research to understand some good molecular targets for vaccine and therapeutic development for SARS-CoV-2 is inevitable.
The newly discovered coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA, and enveloped virus, assigned to the beta CoV genus. The virus (SARS-CoV-2) is more infectious than the previously detected coronaviruses (MERS and SARS). Findings from many studies have revealed that S protein and RdRp are good targets for drug repositioning, novel therapeutic development (antibodies and small molecule drugs), and vaccine discovery. Therapeutics such as chloroquine, convalescent plasma, monoclonal antibodies, spike binding peptides, and small molecules could alter the ability of S protein to bind to the ACE-2 receptor, and drugs such as remdesivir (targeting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp), favipir, and emetine could prevent SASR-CoV-2 RNA synthesis. The novel vaccines such as mRNA1273 (Moderna), 3LNP-mRNAs (Pfizer/BioNTech), and ChAdOx1-S (University of Oxford/Astra Zeneca) targeting S protein have proven to be effective in combating the present pandemic.
Further exploration of the potential of S protein and RdRp is crucial in fighting the present pandemic.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Spike protein (S protein), RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), Drug repositioning, SARS-CoV-2-vaccines
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Article reference: Yusuf Muhammed, Abduljalal Yusuf Nadabo, Mkpouto Pius, Bashiru Sani, Jafar Usman, Nasir Anka Garba, Jaafaru Mohammed Sani, Basit Opeyemi Olayanju, Sunday Zeal Bala, Musa Garba Abdullahi, Misbahu Sambo, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and RNA dependent RNA polymerase as targets for drug and vaccine development: A review, Biosafety and Health, Volume 3, Issue 5, 2021, Pages 249-263, ISSN 2590-0536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bsheal.2021.07.003
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