News Release

Vegetarian women are at a higher risk of hip fracture

Peer-Reviewed Publication

University of Leeds

Infographic - diet and hip fracture

image: Infographic - diet and hip fracture view more 

Credit: University of Leeds

A study of over 26,000 middle-aged UK women reveals those with a vegetarian diet had a 33% higher risk of hip fracture compared to regular meat-eaters. 

University of Leeds research, published today (Thursday, August 11) in the journal BMC Medicine, investigated the risk of hip fracture in occasional meat-eaters; pescatarians, people who eat fish but not meat; and vegetarians compared to regular meat-eaters.  

Among 26,318 women, 822 hip fracture cases were observed over roughly 20 years – that represented just over 3% of the sample population. After adjustment for factors such as smoking and age, vegetarians were the only diet group with an elevated risk of hip fracture.   

This study is one of very few studies to compare risk of hip fracture in vegetarians and meat-eaters where the occurrence of hip fracture was confirmed from hospital records.  

The scientists stress the need for more research into the exact causes of why vegetarians were at a greater risk of hip fracture.  

Vegetarian diets can be ‘healthy or unhealthy’ 

Study lead author James Webster, a doctoral researcher from the School of Food Science and Nutrition at Leeds, said: “Our study highlights potential concerns regarding risk of hip fracture in women who have a vegetarian diet. However, it is not warning people to abandon vegetarian diets. As with any diet, it is important to understand personal circumstances and what nutrients are needed for a balanced healthy lifestyle.   

“Vegetarian diets can vary widely from person to person and can be healthy or unhealthy, just like diets that include animal products.  

“However, it is concerning that vegetarian diets often have lower intakes of nutrients that are linked with bone and muscle health. These types of nutrients generally are more abundant in meat and other animal products than in plants, such as protein, calcium, and other micronutrients.  

“Low intake of these nutrients can lead to lower bone mineral density and muscle mass, which can make you more susceptible to hip fracture risk. This makes it especially important for further research to better understand factors driving the increased risk in vegetarians, whether it be particular nutrient deficiencies or weight management, so that we can help people to make healthy choices.”  

Plant-based diets growing in popularity 

Vegetarian diets have gained popularity in recent years, with a 2021 YouGov survey putting the size of the UK vegetarian population at roughly 5-7%. It is often perceived as a healthier dietary option, with previous evidence that shows a vegetarian diet can reduce the risks of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer compared to omnivorous diets.  

There is also a worldwide call for reducing the consumption of animal products in an effort to tackle climate change. 

Understanding hip fracture risk in vegetarians is therefore becoming increasingly important to public health. 

Study co-author Professor Janet Cade, leader of the Nutritional Epidemiology Group in the School of Food Science and Nutrition at Leeds, said: “Hip fracture is a global health issue with high economic costs that causes loss of independence, reduces quality of life, and increases risk of other health issues.  

“Plant-based diets have been linked with poor bone health, but there has been a lack of evidence on the links to hip fracture risk. This study is an important step in understanding the potential risk plant-based diets could present over the long-term and what can be done to mitigate those risks.”  

The team used data from the UK Women’s Cohort Study to investigate possible links between diet and hip fracture risk. The national cohort of middle-aged women was established at the University of Leeds to explore links between diet and chronic disease, encompassing a wide range of different eating patterns. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire and was validated using a 4-day food diary in a subsample of women.   

At the time they were recruited into the cohort study, the women ranged in age from 35 to 69 years. 

Effect of low BMI 

The research team found that the average BMI among vegetarians was slightly lower than the average among the regular meat eaters. Previous research has shown a link between low BMI and a high risk of hip fracture. 

Lower BMI can indicate people are underweight, which can mean poorer bone and muscle health, and higher risk of hip fracture. Further investigation is needed to determine if low BMI is the reason for the observed higher risk in vegetarians. 

Study co-author, Dr Darren Greenwood, a biostatistician in the School of Medicine at Leeds, said: “This study is just part of the wider picture of diet and healthy bones and muscles in older age.  

“Further research is needed to confirm whether there could be similar results in men, to explore the role of body weight, and to identify the reasons for different outcomes in vegetarians and meat-eaters.”  


Notes to editors 

For more details, please contact David Lewis in the press office at the University of Leeds: on 07710 013287 or 

Contact David Lewis for a review copy of the paper: 

The paper ‘Risk of hip fracture in meat-eaters, pescatarians, and vegetarians: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study’ is published in BMC Medicine on August 11, 2022. When the embargo lifts at 01.00 British Summer Time on Thursday, the story will be available on the following link:   


There is an infographic that you can use with this story. Please credit: University of Leeds. 

Statistical notes 

The study involved 26,318 women who were part of the UK Women’s Cohort Study. The initial data collection took place between 1995 and 1998. The women were categorised into one of four categories:  

Regular meat eater – eating meat at least five times a week. 
Occasional meat eater - eating meat no more than four times a week.   
Pescatarian – eating fish but not meat.  
Vegetarian – not eating meat or fish.  
The respondents were then cross checked against Hospital Episode Statistics up to March 2019 to see if any of them had suffered a hip fracture. Analysis revealed 822 cases of hip fracture, just over 3% of the sample population.  

Cox regression analysis was used to identify associations between diet groups and risk of hip fracture relative to regular meat-eaters over a median follow-up time of 22.3 years. After adjusting for age and relevant lifestyle factors, the analysis revealed vegetarians were at a 33% greater risk compared to regular meat-eaters.  

University of Leeds   

The University of Leeds is one of the largest higher education institutions in the UK, with more than 39,000 students from more than 137 different countries. We are renowned globally for the quality of our teaching and research.   

We are a values-driven university, and we harness our expertise in research and education to help shape a better future for humanity, working through collaboration to tackle inequalities, achieve societal impact and drive change.    

The University is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, and is a major partner in the Alan Turing, Rosalind Franklin and Royce Institutes    

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