News Release

Updated guidelines on cognitive rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury

Revised INCOG 2.0 assembles latest evidence – focus on telerehabilitation and clinical implementation

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Wolters Kluwer Health

January 3, 2023 – A rapidly growing body of evidence shows the importance and effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A major update of the groundbreaking INCOG guidelines for cognitive rehabilitation following TBI is presented in the January/February special issue of the Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation (JHTR). The official journal of the Brain Injury Association of AmericaJHTR  is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.

The INCOG 2.0 guidelines for cognitive rehabilitation reflect the "rapid pivot to telehealth-assisted rehabilitation" in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and new tools to aid in translating the updated recommendations into clinical practice, according to an introduction by Mark Bayley, MD, of University of Toronto, Jennie Ponsford of Monash University in Australia and colleagues of the INCOG international Expert Panel.

Cognitive rehabilitation after TBI: High priority, persistent challenges

Improving the practice of cognitive rehabilitation is an ongoing priority for patients with TBI, reflecting the "diffuse damage to the brain networks that are essential for attention, memory, executive functions, and cognitive aspects of communication," Dr. Bayley and coauthors write. They highlight the continuously expanding evidence base on cognitive rehabilitation after moderate to severe TBI, with more than 160 interventional studies published since the original INCOG guidelines in 2014.

In addition to the "especially complex and highly individualized" nature of cognitive rehabilitation, barriers remain to translating research evidence into clinical practice  – contributing to "significant variations in implementation of best practice cognitive rehabilitation," the Expert Panel writes. INCOG 2.0 seeks to address these barriers by adding tools to promote clinical implementation, as part of ongoing efforts to close the "evidence-practice gap."

What's new in INCOG 2.0? Latest evidence, new tools to promote implementation

The 2022 update addresses critical issues in cognitive rehabilitation after TBI, mirroring the topics addressed in the original INCOG guidelines:

  • Overview introducing the general principles of cognitive rehabilitation, including an enhanced section on telerehabilitation.
  • New and emerging evidence on management of posttraumatic amnesia, including new findings on structured error-controlled and procedural learning approaches.
  • Rehabilitation of attention and processing speed – reflecting ongoing limitations in the evidence for behavioral interventions.
  • New approaches to executive function, including the "evolving and strengthening" evidence on metacognitive strategy instruction and the use of telerehabilitation to promote recovery.
  • Revised and updated recommendations for cognitive-communication disorders. A key focus is the growing appreciation of the importance of the role of social cognition in forming and maintaining relationships after TBI.
  • Strategies for rehabilitation of memory impairment, which continue to be the most widely used cognitive rehabilitation interventions.

"The Future of INCOG (Is Now)," according to a concluding article by Peter Bragge, PhD, of Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues. They discuss recent advances in the review and guideline sciences, such as "living" guidelines that are kept up to date on a more continuous basis, and their relevance to INCOG 2.0 and future updates. The new document incorporates enhanced guidance for clinicians and healthcare administrators and revised clinical algorithms to support decision making and individualized interventions.

The members of the Expert Panel reaffirm their commitment to prioritizing and continually improving advances in research and clinical practice in cognitive rehabilitation. Dr. Bayley and colleagues write: "We recognize that much work remains and hope that INCOG 2.0 is a positive step toward promoting better outcomes for those living with the effects of TBI."

Read [INCOG 2.0 Guidelines for Cognitive Rehabilitation Following Traumatic Brain Injury: What's Changed From 2014 to Now?]


About The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation

The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation is a leading, peer-reviewed resource that provides up-to-date information on the clinical management and rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injuries. Six issues each year aspire to the vision of “knowledge informing care” and include a wide range of articles, topical issues, commentaries and special features. It is the official journal of the Brain Injury Association of America.

About the Brain Injury Association of America

The Brain Injury Association of America is the country’s oldest and largest nationwide brain injury advocacy organization. Our mission is to advance awareness, research, treatment and education and to improve the quality of life for all individuals impacted by brain injury. Through advocacy, we bring help, hope and healing to millions of individuals living with brain injury, their families and the professionals who serve them. 

About Wolters Kluwer

Wolters Kluwer (WKL) is a global leader in professional information, software solutions, and services for the clinicians, nurses, accountants, lawyers, and tax, finance, audit, risk, compliance, and regulatory sectors. We help our customers make critical decisions every day by providing expert solutions that combine deep domain knowledge with advanced technology and services.

Wolters Kluwer reported 2021 annual revenues of €4.8 billion. The group serves customers in over 180 countries, maintains operations in over 40 countries, and employs approximately 19,800 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands.

Wolters Kluwer provides trusted clinical technology and evidence-based solutions that engage clinicians, patients, researchers and students in effective decision-making and outcomes across healthcare. We support clinical effectiveness, learning and research, clinical surveillance and compliance, as well as data solutions. For more information about our solutions, visit and follow us on LinkedIn and Twitter @WKHealth.

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