With a return to the workplace and school, the UK Health Security Agency recently warned that cases of flu and COVID-19 are expected to soar throughout January. Currently, it is estimated that one in eight NHS beds are taken up by flu and COVID-19 patients – yet 22 million vaccines for these viruses have not been used.
A new paper, looking at the psychological reasons for people’s unwillingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine, reveals two key factors to be people’s lack of concern for the consequences of contracting the virus together with their lack of faith in the government's actions.
Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, substantial efforts have been directed toward the development of effective vaccines.
The success of national vaccination campaigns is considered central to finally containing the virus and finding a way out of the pandemic. Yet, as seen this January with 9 million people who are still due to take a COVID-19 booster jab, and 13 million unused free flu shots, vaccine efficacy and safety are not enough to determine the success of these campaigns - vaccine acceptance among the public is also key. This is why it is so crucial to understand psychological reasons for vaccine hesitancy.
The study, conducted by Professor Dominic Abrams from the School of Psychology at the University of Kent, and Dr Fanny Lalot (University of Kent and University of Basel), tested the theory that COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is a result of ‘distrustful complacency’ – a dangerous combination of low concern and low trust. The psychologists hypothesized that either concern or political trust should be sufficient to motivate people to get vaccinated, as the presence of one can compensate for the absence of the other. The absence of both concern and trust, however, ‘distrustful complacency’, would undermine that motivation, resulting in greater vaccine hesitancy.
Across two studies, 9,695 respondents from different parts of Britain reported their level of concern about COVID-19, their trust in the UK government, and their intention to accept or refuse the vaccine. Across the studies, respondents with both low trust and low concern were 26%–29% more hesitant to receive the vaccine, compared to those with both high trust and high concern.
The study showed that people who accept the vaccine do so because they are highly concerned about the consequences of the pandemic - for themselves and for others. Others do so because they trust the political institutions responsible for enacting the vaccination program. However, those who, for whatever reasons, do not trust these institutions and are also not concerned about the virus are much likelier to be hesitant about vaccination.
Professor Abrams said ‘Vaccines save lives but only if people are willing to take them. Our evidence shows that science and politics are powerfully interconnected. For scientific knowledge to make its contribution, people need to trust that politicians are using the evidence and advising wisely.’
Dr Lalot added ‘The importance of finding the same connection between trust, concern and vaccination intentions amongst White British, Muslim, and Black respondents, and generally across all nations in Britain. This underlines the importance of psychological perceptions regardless of demographic factors.’
The paper ‘Distrustful Complacency and the COVID-19 Vaccine: How Concern and Political Trust Interact to Affect Vaccine Hesitancy’ is published on Wiley Online Library. The research is funded by Nuffield Foundation, and is part of a collaborative project ‘Beyond Us and Them’, between University of Kent and Belong – The Cohesion and Integration Network.
Dominic Abrams is a Professor of Social Psychology and the Director of the Centre for the Study of Group Processes in the School of Psychology at the University of Kent. He was recently awarded an OBE for services to social science in the New Year’s Honours list. His research examines all aspects of relations between different social groups and the behaviour of groups in general. Professor Abrams has extensive experience in the areas of equality and human rights, prejudice, discrimination, social attitudes and social change across the life course.
Dr Fanny Lalot is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Basel and honorary scholar at the University of Kent. Her research interests revolve around social influence and behaviour change, motivation and goal systems, identity, group systems, and social and political trust.
About the University of Kent
The University of Kent is a leading UK university producing world-class research, rated internationally excellent and leading the way in many fields of study. Our 20,000 students are based at campuses and centres in Canterbury, Medway, Brussels and Paris.
We are renowned for our inspirational teaching and our graduates are equipped for a successful future allowing them to compete effectively in the global job market.
We are committed to supporting outstanding research and innovation across the arts and humanities, sciences and social sciences. Our discoveries and research will emphasise existing and new signature areas, where we match the best in the world.
The University is a truly international community with over 40% of our academics coming from outside the UK and our students representing over 150 nationalities.
We are a major economic force in southeast England, supporting innovation and enterprise and through collaboration with partners, work to ensure our global ambitions have a positive impact on the region’s academic, cultural, social and economic landscape.
Method of Research
Subject of Research
Distrustful Complacency and the COVID-19 Vaccine: How Concern and Political Trust Interact to Affect Vaccine Hesitancy
Article Publication Date