News Release

UNF study finds dual COVID and flu vaccination reduces infection rates

Peer-Reviewed Publication

University of North Florida

Jacksonville, Fla. – University of North Florida Brooks College of Health faculty recently published a study showing dual COVID-19 and seasonal influenza vaccinations are associated with reduced infection rates and can be an effective strategy to reduce the contagious respiratory disease burden during the winter.

The study found individuals with dual vaccination and COVID-19 vaccine only were significantly less likely to report COVID-19 infection when compared with those unvaccinated. There was no significant difference in self-reported COVID-19 symptom severity by vaccination status.

Dr. Zhigang Xie, public health assistant professor, and Dr. Hanadi Hamadi, health administration associate professor, partnered with two University of Florida researchers for the study. Using data from the 2021 National Health Interview Survey, the team conducted descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regressions to examine the association between dual vaccination status and self-reported COVID-19 infection and severity among 21,387 (weighted 185,251,310) U.S. adults. Of those in the survey, about 22% did not receive either the flu or COVID-19 vaccine, 6.0% received the flu vaccine only, 29.1% received the COVID-19 vaccine only, and 42.5% received both vaccines.

Read the full study in the latest issue of Vaccine journal.

About University of North Florida

The University of North Florida is a nationally ranked university located on a beautiful 1,381-acre campus in Jacksonville surrounded by nature. Serving 17,000 students, UNF features six colleges of distinction with innovative programs in high-demand fields. UNF students receive individualized attention from faculty and gain valuable real-world experience engaging with community partners. A top public university, UNF prepares students to make a difference in Florida and around the globe. Learn more at


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