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Watch this person-shaped robot liquify and escape jail, all with the power of magnets

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Cell Press

Person-shaped robot liquifies to escape cage before being manually recast back into its original shape

video: This is a video of a person-shaped robot liquifying to escape from a cage after which the researchers manually extracted the robot and recast it back into its original shape. view more 

Credit: Wang and Pan et al.

Inspired by sea cucumbers, engineers have designed miniature robots that rapidly and reversibly shift between liquid and solid states. On top of being able to shape-shift, the robots are magnetic and can conduct electricity. The researchers put the robots through an obstacle course of mobility and shape-morphing tests in a study publishing January 25 in the journal Matter.

Where traditional robots are hard-bodied and stiff, “soft” robots have the opposite problem; they are flexible but weak, and their movements are difficult to control. “Giving robots the ability to switch between liquid and solid states endows them with more functionality,” says Chengfeng Pan (@ChengfengPan), an engineer at The Chinese University of Hong Kong who led the study.

The team created the new phase-shifting material—dubbed a “magnetoactive solid-liquid phase transitional machine”—by embedding magnetic particles in gallium, a metal with a very low melting point (29.8 °C).

“The magnetic particles here have two roles,” says senior author and mechanical engineer Carmel Majidi (@SoftMachinesLab) of Carnegie Mellon University. “One is that they make the material responsive to an alternating magnetic field, so you can, through induction, heat up the material and cause the phase change. But the magnetic particles also give the robots mobility and the ability to move in response to the magnetic field.”

This is in contrast to existing phase-shifting materials that rely on heat guns, electrical currents, or other external heat sources to induce solid-to-liquid transformation. The new material also boasts an extremely fluid liquid phase compared to other phase-changing materials, whose “liquid” phases are considerably more viscous.

Before exploring potential applications, the team tested the material’s mobility and strength in a variety of contexts. With the aid of a magnetic field, the robots jumped over moats, climbed walls, and even split in half to cooperatively move other objects around before coalescing back together. In one video, a robot shaped like a person liquifies to ooze through a grid after which it is extracted and remolded back into its original shape.

“Now, we’re pushing this material system in more practical ways to solve some very specific medical and engineering problems,” says Pan.

On the biomedical side, the team used the robots to remove a foreign object from a model stomach and to deliver drugs on-demand into the same stomach. They also demonstrate how the material could work as smart soldering robots for wireless circuit assembly and repair (by oozing into hard-to-reach circuits and acting as both solder and conductor) and as a universal mechanical “screw” for assembling parts in hard-to-reach spaces (by melting into the threaded screw socket and then solidifying; no actual screwing required.)

“Future work should further explore how these robots could be used within a biomedical context,” says Majidi. “What we're showing are just one-off demonstrations, proofs of concept, but much more study will be required to delve into how this could actually be used for drug delivery or for removing foreign objects.”


This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Special Support Plan for High Level Talents in Guangdong Province, and the Key Research and Development Plan of Guangdong Province.

Matter, Wang and Pan et al. ‘Magnetoactive Liquid-Solid Phase Transitional Matter,’

Matter (@Matter_CP), published by Cell Press, is a new journal for multi-disciplinary, transformative materials sciences research. Papers explore scientific advancements across the spectrum of materials development—from fundamentals to application, from nano to macro. Visit: To receive Cell Press media alerts, please contact

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