News Release

蜥蜴在面临极端寒冷时会表现出快速演化

Peer-Reviewed Publication

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Lizards Demonstrate Rapid Evolution in the Face of Extreme Cold

image: University of Illinois animal biology professor Julian Catchen, left, postdoctoral researcher Shane Campbell-Staton and their colleagues found genetic, regulatory and physiological signatures of natural selection in green anole lizards that survived a bout of extremely cold weather in South Texas. This material relates to a paper that appeared in the Aug. 4, 2017, issue of <i>Science</i>, published by AAAS. The paper, by S.C. Campbell-Staton at University of Illinois in Champaign, Ill., and colleagues was titled, "Winter storms drive rapid phenotypic, regulatory, and genomic shifts in the green anole lizard." view more 

Credit: L. Brian Stauffer

在美国突然遭遇寒潮袭击前后,通过对一群蜥蜴所做的研究,科学家们观察了幸存的蜥蜴群是如何因应寒潮而做出快速适应的。这些结果证明,蜥蜴的一个亚群是如何(甚至在短短的一个世代内)对极端气候做出快速反应的。1898年,在一次历时短暂但却极端的气候事件后,生物学家Hermon Bumpus首次报告了影响野生种群自然选择的直接检测,因为他发现,麻雀的体形会因应严重的暴风雪而改变。然而,尽管技术上取得了进步,但对强烈天气变化做出生物学反应的实例仍然少得惊人。在这里,Shane C. Campbell-Staton和同事在2013年8月对德克萨斯境内5个地方的绿色变色龙蜥蜴(Anolis carolinensis)失去协调性的阈值温度进行了检测。他们在2013-2014年冬季期间的一次极端寒潮之后进行了同样的检测,该次寒潮导致气温比过去15年都要显著寒冷;但是他们发现,美国南方存活下来的蜥蜴表现出比在寒潮之前对寒冷更大的抵抗力,其程度类似于在更北部蜥蜴的抗寒能力。此外,RNA测序显示,在该次风暴前后,个体蜥蜴有14个基因组区域显示了明显的差异。令人感到迷惑的是,该基因表达的转变仅仅出现于南方的蜥蜴种群(它们会表现出向更北方种群的基因转变),相反,北方的蜥蜴种群则没有表现出改变,其原因假定为那里的冬天变化程度不甚剧烈。Peter R. Grant在《视角》中得重点介绍了这些结果。

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