Tech & Engineering
A study of smokers found that the first day of a quit attempt is more challenging for women than men. This is a particularly significant finding as the first day of abstinence is one of the most critical predictors of long-term smoking cessation. The study also showed that larger health warning labels on cigarette packs were associated with reduced odds of one-day relapse among women. Until now, little was known about sex differences in early abstinence .
- Addictive Behaviors
The increasing amounts of municipal solid waste and ineffective waste management systems threaten the environment and contribute to climate warming, yet the waste sector is often neglected in discussions about climate change and air pollution. A new IIASA-led study shows, for the first time, how circular waste management systems can help to effectively curb emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants.
- Nature Communications
For female veterinarians who want to specialize in zoological work, a new study on family work and income for diplomates of the American College of Zoological Medicine (ACZM) holds both good and bad news. While women in the field don’t seem to suffer from a gender pay gap, many feel that they must give up on having children in order to succeed.
- Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
As climate change continues and the incidences of drought rise, water is increasingly becoming scarce for manufacturing. But a new study by researchers at Penn State and UCLA suggests that there is a silver lining — companies that use water may pivot to become efficient and more eco-friendly during periods of water scarcity.
- Management Science
Paderborn University physicist Professor Klaus Jöns has been awarded an ‘ERC Starting Grant’ from the European Research Council (ERC) – one of the most prestigious awards in the field of science in Europe. The ERC is a body of the European Commission for funding leading international research. As part of “Horizon Europe”, the European Union’s research framework programme, the grants aim to encourage and support frontier research in Europe, on the basis of scientific excellence. The highly endowed “Starting Grant” supports particularly promising scientists who are at the beginning of an independent research career.
Prompted by the increasing prominence of artificial intelligence (AI) in society, University of Tokyo researchers investigated public attitudes toward the ethics of AI. Their findings quantify how different demographics and ethical scenarios affect these attitudes. As part of this study, the team developed an octagonal visual metric, analogous to a rating system, which could be useful to AI researchers who wish to know how their work may be perceived by the public.
- International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
- World Premier International Research Center Initiative, KAKENHI, MEXT, SECOM Science and Technology Foundation